Nepal, a landlocked country with an ancient culture and the Himalayas as a backdrop, was isolated from the outside world until the 1950s.
Since then, the nation has experienced the establishment of a multi-party parliamentary system, a ten-year Maoist insurgency, and the abolishment of its monarchy.
It is home to eight of the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, also known locally as Sagarmatha, and is bordered by China and India.
Nepal is one of the world's poorer nations, and aid and tourism play a significant role in the country's economy.
A devastating earthquake that struck in April 2015 destroyed countless villages, killed thousands of people, and left thousands of historic sites in ruins.
- : capital. Kathmandu.
- Area:. 147,516 sq km.
- Population:. 30.6% of a billion.
- Language:. along with others, Nepali.
- Typical lifespan: 72 years for women and 69 years for men.
Founder and leader: Bidhya Devi Bhandari.
In an election held by the parliament in October 2015, Bidhya Devi Bhandari became the first female president of Nepal. She served as the Unified Marxist-Leninist party's deputy leader and as defense minister previously.
She is the widow of the late communist leader Madan Kumar Bhandari and an advocate for women's rights.
The role of president is primarily ceremonial.
Pushpa Kamal Dahal serves as prime minister.
Pushpa Kamal Dahal, a seasoned politician from Nepal, was sworn in as prime minister in December 2022. Between 2008 and 2009 and again between 2016 and 2017, he served as prime minister.
Following the failure of power-sharing negotiations between the departing Democratic Left Alliance in December 2022 following the general elections in November, the chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), Pushpa Kamal Dahal, was appointed prime minister of a coalition government made up of MPs from his own party, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), Rastriya Swatantra Party, and Janamat Party, as well as the backing of others.
Since the end of the monarchy, the leadership of the Nepali Congress and the main communist parties has alternated with that of their smaller parliamentary allies.
The communist parties want to include Nepal in China's overseas infrastructure investment programs, while Congress is more in line with India.
According to activists, the fact that journalists have suffered violence limits media freedom.
A small film industry known as "Kollywood" exists. .
Important dates in Nepal's history include:
1768 . Prithvi Narayan Shah, a ruler of the Gurkha people, conquers Kathmandu and establishes the nation's unity.
1814-16. - The Anglo-Nepalese War, which results in a treaty defining the present-day borders of Nepal.
1846 . - The Ranas, who rule the monarchy and isolate Nepal from the outside world, are the country's hereditary chief ministers.
1950 . - Indian-based anti-Rana forces join forces with the ruler.
1951 . - The end of Rana's rule. Restoration of the throne's sovereignty and the establishment of a new government by rebels opposed to Rana.
1960 . - King Mahendra takes over and suspends the constitution, the legislature, and party politics.
1991 . First democratic elections are won by the Nepali Congress Party.
1995-2006 . – The Maoist uprising and civil war, which claims thousands of lives.
2008 . After the monarchy is abolished, Nepal becomes a republic.
2015 . The first constitution in Asia to specifically protect gay rights has been adopted.