One of the biggest and most advanced economies on the continent is that of South Africa.
When the National Party came to power in 1948 and imposed its apartheid policy, which legally institutionalized previously existing racial segregation, it was ruled for about 40 years by a white minority government.
The discriminatory laws started to be repealed starting in the late 1980s after decades of international isolation, armed opposition, and large-scale protests. In 1994, the nation held its initial nationwide elections.
Although the democratically elected leadership worked to promote peace and address social injustices, the economy has had trouble.
The World Economic Forum issued a warning in 2022 that South Africa faced a high risk of state collapse due to record unemployment, high crime rates, unaffordable government spending, poorly run institutions, and corruption.
- : capital. Bloemfontein (judicial), Pretoria (executive), and Cape Town (legislative).
- Area:. 1,221,037 sq km.
- Population:. sixty-six million.
- Languages:. Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, English, Sepedi, Swazi, Sesotho, Setswana, Xitsonga, Tshivenda, and Ndebele are some other languages.
- Expected lifespan: (Men) 60 years; (Women) 67 years.
Cyril Ramaphosa is the president.
After Jacob Zuma's resignation due to corruption allegations in February 2018, Cyril Ramaphosa was chosen as president by parliament.
Successful but occasionally contentious in business, Mr. Ramaphosa was chosen a few months ago to lead the ruling African National Congress (ANC).
He took over a party that was split, a struggling economy, and a corruption issue that had become entrenched.
Mr. Ramaphosa was not forced into exile for his opposition to apartheid, unlike many other senior party figures of his generation.
His most notable contribution to the fight against the injustices of white minority rule in South Africa was his leadership of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), which he led in defending the rights of black miners.
He played a significant role in the creation of South Africa's post-apartheid constitution and was heavily involved in the negotiations to end apartheid.
Mr. Ramaphosa withdrew from active politics after failing to be appointed as then-President Nelson Mandela's deputy and shifted his attention to business.
In 2014, he made a comeback as vice president before finally succeeding Mr. Zuma, who had been dogged by scandal. He passed his first test when the ANC won the parliamentary elections in May 2019, despite the fact that its 58 percent vote share was its smallest margin of victory since apartheid ended.
Major media player on the continent, South Africa's broadcasters and press are representative of the country's diverse population.
Numerous well-known state-run and private TV stations broadcast nationwide, and tens of thousands of viewers have cable and satellite subscriptions. MultiChoice, a company based in South Africa, sells satellite pay-TV in numerous African nations.
A few significant occasions in South Africa's history are:.
Period IV. - Northern migrants establish themselves and mix with the native San and Khoikhoi populations.
1497 . - Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, lands on the Natal coast.
1652 . - Jan van Riebeeck establishes the Cape Colony at Table Bay on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.
1795 . - British troops take control of Cape Colony from the Dutch. In 1803, territory is given back to the Dutch; in 1806, it is ceded to the British.
1816-1826. - Shaka Zulu founds and develops the Zulu empire and raises a powerful army.
1835-1840. - Boers embark on the "Great Trek" and discover the Orange Free State and the Transvaal after leaving Cape Colony.
1867 . - Kimberley saw the discovery of diamonds.
1877 . - The Transvaal is annexed by Britain.
1879 . - In Natal, the British defeat the Zulus.
1880-81. - The first Anglo-Boer War is sparked by a Boer uprising against the British. A negotiated peace brings an end to conflict. A republic is established in Transvaal.
1880s. - A gold rush is sparked by the discovery of gold in the Transvaal.
1899 . Beginning of the Second Anglo-Boer War.
1902 . - The Second Anglo-Boer War is ended by the Treaty of Vereeniging. The British Empire creates the Transvaal and Orange Free State as independent colonies.
1910 . - The former British colonies of the Cape and Natal, as well as the Boer republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, formed the Union of South Africa.
1912 . - The African National Congress (ANC) was renamed after the Native National Congress was founded.
1913 . - The Land Act was passed to prohibit black South Africans from purchasing land outside of reserves, with the exception of those who reside in Cape Province.
1914 . founded the National Party.
1919 . - South West Africa, a former German colony that is now Namibia, is governed by South Africa following World War One.
1948 . - When the National Party (NP) assumes power, apartheid (separateness) policy is implemented.
1950 . - A population breakdown by race. To separate blacks and whites, the Group Areas Act was passed. Ban on the Communist Party. Nelson Mandela leads the ANC's campaign of civil disobedience in response.
1960 . - Sharpeville saw the deaths of 69 black protesters. ANC forbid.
1961 . - South Africa renounces the Commonwealth and declares itself a republic. The new military wing of the ANC, led by Mandela, begins a sabotage campaign.
1960s . International pressure on the government starts, and South Africa is barred from the Olympics.
1964 . - Nelson Mandela was given a life sentence in prison.
1970s . - More than three million people were forcibly relocated to "homelands" for black people.
1976 . - The uprising that begins in Soweto results in more than 600 deaths from clashes between black protesters and security personnel.
1984-89. - Township uprising; emergency.
1989 . - PW Botha is succeeded as president by FW de Klerk. public buildings were integrated. Many ANC activists were set free.
1990 . The ANC ban is lifted. Nelson Mandela was released from prison after 27 years. Namibia becomes a free nation.
1991 . Start of multiparty negotiations. De Klerk lifts the remaining apartheid sanctions and repeals the laws. between the ANC and the Zulu Inkatha movement.
1994 . First non-racial elections are won by the ANC. After being elected, Nelson Mandela leads a Government of National Unity. sanctions are lifted while Commonwealth membership is reinstated. After 20 years, South Africa rejoins the UN General Assembly.
1996 . hearings on human rights violations committed by the former government and liberation movements during the apartheid era are opened by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which is presided over by Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
1998 . - According to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission report, the ANC is responsible for violating human rights and apartheid is classified as a crime against humanity.
2010 . - The football World Cup is being held in South Africa.
2013. Nelson Mandela passes away at age 95.
2014 . - Oscar Pistorius, a paralympic athlete known as the "Blade Runner" due to his prosthetic limbs, has been given a five-year prison term for killing his girlfriend.
2018 . - President Zuma resigns in response to pressure from the ruling ANC over corruption allegations, and Cyril Ramaphosa, a seasoned businessman and trade unionist, is named as his replacement.