Turkmenistan, a nation with an autocratic government and sizable gas reserves, has served as a haven of stability in the turbulent region of Central Asia.
Despite the wealth from gas, a large portion of the population is impoverished. The nation entered a period of isolation after gaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, which has only recently started to end. .
About two thirds of Turkmenistan's natural gas exports, which total around 70 billion cubic meters annually, are sent to Russia's Gazprom gas monopoly.
To lessen its reliance on Russia, the government has sought out gas agreements with a number of other nations, including China and Iran's neighbor. .
- : capital. Ashgabat.
- Area:. 491,210 sq km.
- Population:. Five-six million.
- Language:. Turkmen.
- Expected lifespan: (Men) 64 years; (Women) 71 years.
Serdar Berdymukhamedov is the president.
In March 2022, Serdar Berdymukhamedov became the third leader of the totalitarian nation.
After the passing of his own mentor Saparmyrat Niyazov in 2007, his father Gurbanguly was elected president.
President Berdymukhamedov wields absolute power, much like his predecessors, and is the subject of a personality cult in the state-run media.
Government has a complete monopoly on the media, and state radio and TV continuously broadcast propaganda.
Turkmenistan has been referred to as "an ever-expanding news black hole" by Reporters Without Borders.
International social networks are frequently inaccessible, and foreign news and opposition websites are blocked.
Several significant occasions in Turkmenistan's history include:.
1881 . - Following the Battle of Geok Tepe against nomadic Turkmen troops, Russia annexes the majority of modern-day Turkmenistan.
1925 . - Turkmenistan joins the Soviet Union as a constituent republic.
1991. - The independence of Turkmenistan is declared.
2009 . - A pipeline is established for the export of natural gas to China, ending Russia's monopoly on Turkmenistan's energy supplies.
2007 . - Following the passing of his mentor Saparmyrat Niyazov, Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov assumes the presidency. In 2022, he resigns in favor of Serdar, his own son.